Animals In Distress (A.I.D.)


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Laws against domestic animal cruelty in Andalucia Spain

There is a well-structured system of laws for animal protection and welfare in Spain. On the one hand, the central government is responsible for the laws related to wildlife protection, sanctions for animal abuse at all levels, sanitary requirements for domestic and farm animals as well as special laws intended to regulate the ownership of potentially aggressive domestic animals.

On the other hand, the autonomous regions and the town halls have specific laws related to the protection and the welfare of domestic animals with a local application.

The region’s competence covers the following aspects:

  • General rules applicable to all kinds of animals, like minimal care they should receive, treatment, sanitation and transport, as well as regulations for the sale and trade of animals.
  • Regulations for ownership and treatment of pets, in relation to the hygienic-sanitary requirements to be observed and the consequences of abandoning animals, as well as collection, euthanasia, sterilization, and standards to be met by facilities that will temporally host abandoned animals.
  • Regulations for native fauna, related to the capture, hunting, possession, trafficking, trade, sale, import and export, as well as taxidermy and exhibitions.

Law in Andalusia

The government of Andalucía updated the law for the protection and welfare of animals with the law 11/2003 of 24th November. The law is extensive and covers aspects related to minimal sanitary conditions, transport, vaccinations and identification, to name but a few.

A summary of the law

In practice the law will enforce a series of obligations for the owner and the people taking care of domestic animals.

The person caring for a pet has the following obligations:

  1. Keep the animal in good sanitary and hygienic conditions, apply all compulsory veterinary treatments and assist the pet with the help of a qualified veterinarian
  2. Give the pet a suitable accommodation in relation to its size, race and species
  3. Feed it with a suitable diet for healthy development
  4. Protect the pet from aggressions, dangerous situations or discomfort from other animals or people
  5. Prevent the pet from attacking other animals or people, as well from creating any kind of damage
  6. Report the loss of the pet to the authorities.

The owner of a pet has the following obligations:

  1. Obtain authorizations, permits and licenses related to the animal in question
  2. Inscribe the pet at the town hall according to the specific laws related to the species.  It is compulsory for cats and dogs.

Additionally the law forbids:

  1. To mistreat, physically aggress or any other practice provoking suffering or unjustified damage
  2. The abandonment of the animal
  3. To keep the pet in a place or site unsuitable from the hygienic point of view or in relation to its size, race, species and care needed
  4. The practice of aesthetical mutilations
  5. Euthanasia without the necessary conditions approved by law
  6. Keep the pet permanently attached or confined to a restricted space (with specific exceptions considered by law)
  7. To donate pets in the purpose of publicity, as prizes or any form of compensation other than the conscious and responsible purchase by the owner
  8. To use the pet in experiments against current legislation
  9. To sell pets to persons under 16 years of age or to incapacitated persons
  10. To sell pets outside regulated and designated areas
  11. To give to the animal any kind of substances creating unnecessary suffering or any kind of unauthorized substance in particular during a competition
  12. To force an animal of less than 6 month old, ill, tired, malnourished or pregnant, to work
  13. To use the animal in order to train another animal to attack or to fight
  14. Cock fighting, dog fighting, or any other similar practice

Compulsory identification

Cats and dogs have to be individually identified with a standard ID microchip that will be implanted under the skin within 3 months of birth by an authorized veterinarian. Once the ID system is in place the pet will have to be inscribed in the “pet registry” of the town hall of the town where the animal normally lives. This will have to be done within 3 months of birth, within one month after the purchase or within one month after the change of residence.

The owner will have to deregister the pet within one month from death, or change of ownership.

This identification will enable authorities to identify the owner in case the pet is lost or abandoned.

Abandonment is punishable

A domestic animal is considered abandoned when it has no identification and is considered lost when it is free without vigilance. If the pet is found by the authorities, the owner will have to collect it from the animal shelter within 5 days and will have to pay the expenses incurred by the shelter. If the pet is not collected within 10 days it will be considered abandoned and preparations will begin for its adoption. Any way the owner will be considered responsible and could incur a fine for abandoning the pet.

If after a specific period determined by the local town hall the pet is not adopted, the shelter’s administration can decide to put the animal down. This will be done by an authorized veterinarian using a humane method and under total anaesthesia.  The owner will have to be informed before any such action is taken.


If the pet is severely ill with very little chance of recovery or if an aggressive pet presents a danger for the owner or other people, the owner can decide to have the animal put down. This can be done only by an authorized veterinarian and will be done at his discretion. If the veterinarian believes that the pet can recover from its illness he is entitled to refuse to put it down. He is also entitled to report the owner if he finds clear evidence of cruelty.


The sanctions for cruelty to animals are clearly stated in article 337 of the Spanish penal code. Anyone mistreating a domestic animal causing death, injuries or physical impairments will be punished with a prison sentence from 3 months to one year with subsequent disqualification from one to 3 years from any trade or business related to animals.

Other infractions can be sanctioned with fines from 75€ to 30,000€.

Reporting cruelty

Spain and Andalusia have several legal instruments to punish domestic animal abuse.

However anyone witnessing cruelty or who has sufficient evidence related to infractions of the law on domestic animal welfare must report it to the local police (Policia local), the sanitary and veterinary services of the community of Andalusia or the Guardia Civil unit responsible for environment protection (SEPRONA). The authorities will carry out an investigation for the local competent tribunals.

In order to increase the chances of success, the report should be supported by concrete data of the crimes, the witnesses and the offenders. A generic report without supporting evidence will generally have little or no effect.

English                                                        Spanish

Prohibited Activities

Mistreatment of or physical aggression towards animals.
(Fines imposed may range from €75 - €30,000)

Abandoning animals
(Fines from €2,000 to €30,000)

Keeping animals permanently chained
(Fines from €500 to €3,000)

Using animals as prizes in fairs or tombolas 
(Fines from €500 to €2,000€)

Dog and cock fighting
(Fines from €2,000 to €30,000)

Keeping animals in places where they cause inconvenience or a nuisance to other people
(Fines from €75 to €500)

Selling animals illegally, and selling animals to purchasers less than 16 years of age. 
(Fines from €500 to €2,000)

Exploitation of working animals.
(Fines €500 to €2,000)

Leaving poison in public places. 
(Fines from €2,000 to €30,000)


Maltratar o agredir físicamente a los animales. (multas de €75 -30,000)

El abandono de animales
(multas de €2,000 – 30,000)

Mantenerlos siempre atados 
(multas de €500 – 3,000)

Utilizarlos como premio en ferias y tómbolas
(multas de €500 - 2,000)

Las peleas de perros y gallos
(multas de €2,000 -  30,000)

Mantener animales en lugares donde
ocasionen molestias a los vecinos
(multas de €75 - 500)

La venta ambulante e ilegal,
la venta a menores de dieciséis años.

(multas de €500 - 2,000)

Explotarlos en su trabajo
(multas de €500 - 2,000)

Depositar veneno en espacios y lugares públicos.    (multas de €2,000 - 30,000) 

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Laws for the protection of animals (Google English translation)

Law on Protection of Animals

December 19, 2003 BOE, no. 303, [pg. 45,194]
Andalusian BOJA December 10, 2003, no. 237, [pg. 25,824]


That the Parliament of Andalusia has passed and I, on behalf of King and authority vested in me by the Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy, promulgate and order the publication of the following: LAW ON THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS.

In recent decades has proliferated in the most civilized societies, an unprecedented feeling of protection, respect and protection of nature in general and animals in particular, becoming a cultural issues that matter to all citizens. In this process, especially factors have contributed to raising both scientific-technical and philosophical.

On the one hand, science, through the study of animal physiognomy, has been shown empirically that the arguments that were put forward for so many centuries to distance us from the animals lacked justification, be crucial in the process of modern genetic studies. At the same time, studies on sensory and cognitive abilities of animals have left no doubt about the possibility that they may experience feelings such as joy, fear, stress, anxiety, pain or happiness. "Studies on the sensory capabilities
and cognitive animals have left no doubt about the possibility
that they may experience feelings such as joy, fear,
stress, anxiety, pain or happiness. "

On the other hand, the finding of this data has been generated since the mid-sixties, a major rethinking of ethics, code-ideological, about man's position towards animals, with the primary aim of clarifying where is the fuzzy boundary between animal welfare and human interests. This has given rise to a new line national and international legislation on protection of animals.
In the latter area, there are many texts that refer to these protectionist principles. Among them include the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights, adopted by UNESCO on October 17, 1978, and in the field of European Union European Parliament's resolution of June 6, 1996, an initiative embodied in the Protocol the Treaty establishing the European Community No. 33, on protection and welfare of animals, introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam (RCL 1999, 1205, 2084).

Current legislation in our country is only partial and scattered, which does not provide an adequate and effective protection of animals. Under these circumstances, the Andalusian society came claiming the defense mechanisms that would ensure the same. In order to meet this demand, the Autonomous Region has developed this Act

Among the matters listed in Article 148 of the Constitution (RCL 1978, 2836; ApNDL 2875) and, in turn, collected as the exclusive competence of the Autonomous Region include health and hygiene, culture, leisure and entertainment (Article 13.21, 13.26 , 13.31, 13.32, of the Statute of Autonomy for Andalusia [LAN 1982, 53]), therefore the responsibility of the Autonomous regulation of the subject matter of this Act

This Act takes into account that within the animal protection across sectors can be distinguished by virtue of the purpose for which they are intended: livestock, experimentation, company, etc.., Which by their special connotations require separate and detailed treatment to achieve protection that meets your specific needs.

From this diversity, it has chosen to regulate the conditions for protection of companion animals, because these are the less attention by the special legislative and social dimensions that are achieving in recent years. This regulation is made from as many perspectives, not limited solely to the protection of the animals themselves, but also incorporating measures to ensure a healthy relationship of animals to man, not only from the hygienic point of view health, but also in security.

This has not prevented, however, are collected in the General Provisions, the minimum attention should treat all animals living in the possession of man.

Finally, this text aims to adapt the legal rules to a public awareness increasingly widespread demands for an end to the abuse, neglect or torture to animals living with man, and at the same time serve as an instrument to increase public sensitivity toward some behaviors characteristic of a civilized and modern society.

This Act contains five titles. Title I contains a number of general provisions that are aimed at the establishment of basic care they should receive all the animals that live in the human environment.

Title II is intended to regulate pets and is divided into six chapters. The first one, after laying the concept of companion animal, establishes the sanitary and how to proceed in the sacrifice of them. Chapter II refers to the rules concerning the maintenance, treatment and recreation, establishing a special obligations for owners of dogs, such as limitations on driving on public spaces. The identification and registration rules are contained in Chapter III, while in Chapter IV regulates the conditions that the veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and temporary care of pets. Chapter V regulates the conditions for exhibitions and contests, and Chapter VI defines abandoned and lost animals, also regulated the measures to be carried out collection centers.

Title III deals with protection associations and animal rights, enabling the collaboration of regional and local administration with them.

Title IV establishes the intervention measures, inspection, monitoring and cooperation to relevant regional and local administrations.
Finally, Part V classifies violations of the provisions of the Act and corresponding penalties.

General Provisions

Article 1. Purpose and scope.
This Act aims to regulate the conditions of protection and welfare of the animals that live in the possession of human beings, and in particular companion animals in the territory of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.
For the purposes of this Act are considered pets all those harbored by humans, usually at home, primarily for the company, without the profit motive is the essential element that determines its tenure.
For the purposes of this Act are considered farm animals all those who live without the man, are kept, bred or fattened by it to the production of food or other benefits.

Item 2. Exclusions.
Fall outside the scope of this Act and shall be governed by its own rules:

a) The wildlife and its utilization.
b) Functional testing and training behind closed doors with cattle for bullfights, shows and celebrations duly authorized this type of animal and practical classes with interests held by authorized bullfighting schools.

Item 3. Obligations.

1. The keeper of an animal subject to protection under this Act has the following obligations:

a) maintaining sanitary conditions, making declare any treatment required and supply veterinary assistance you need.
b) Provide adequate housing based on race or species to which it belongs.
c) provide the power needed for normal development.
d) To ensure and protect the animal attacks, dangerous situations, discomfort and inconvenience other people or animals may cause them.
e) To prevent attacks from animal to humans or other animals as well as the production of other damage.
f) Report the loss of the animal.

2. The owner of an animal subject to protection under this Act has the following obligations:

a) Obtaining the necessary authorizations, permits or licenses required in each case, to be in possession of the animal concerned.
b) shall register the animal or census records in each report, as provided in this Act and regulations.
3. Veterinary practitioners in the free exercise of the profession or self employment, have the following obligations:

a) Make a file with the records of the animals subjected to any treatment, specifying mandatory, and that will, at all times available to the competent authority.
b) To inform the competent authority in the matter of facts which would constitute any violation of this Act

4. Professionals dedicated to breeding, training, foster care or grooming of pets they will give to an appropriate treatment ethological characteristics, in addition to complying with the requirements established by regulation for the exercise of their profession. "The veterinary doctors in the private practice of the profession or self employment, have the following obligations: to inform the competent authority in the matter of facts which would constitute any violation of this Act."

Item 4. Prohibitions.

1. Subject to the exceptions provided in this Act, is prohibited:
a) physically abusing or assaulting the animal or subject to any other practice which occasioned them undue suffering or injury.

b) The abandonment of animals.
c) Keep in places or improper installation from the standpoint of health and hygiene or inadequate for the practice of care and attention necessary to require physiological and behavioral needs, by race or species.

d) Practice mutilation for purely aesthetic and uselessly practiced by veterinarians except in case of need.
e) The slaughter of animals without meeting the guarantees provided in this Act or any applicable regulations.
f) Keep permanently tied or chained to the animals, with the specifications and except as stated.
g) Make donation of animals for advertising or as a prize, reward or gift for other acquisitions in nature than their own costly acquisition of animals.
h) used in experimental procedures or allocate to them without compliance with the warranties set forth in the applicable regulations.
i) sold under sixteen years old and disabled without the permission of anyone with parental authority, custody or guardianship of the same, in accordance, where appropriate, with the ruling of disability.
j) To exercise their hawking outside markets or fairs authorized to do so.
k) provide substances that can cause unnecessary suffering or injury, as well as any unauthorized substance, even if it is to increase performance in a competition.
l) artificially manipulate the animals in order to make them attractive for fun or toy for sale.
m) Use live animals as targets in rides and attractions, contests or competitions.
n) To force animals to work in less than six months old, sick, malnourished, fatigued, or perform work on the effort required to exceed its capacity. This applies to females who are pregnant.
o) Use to train animals to other animals in the fight or attack.
o) Use animal exhibitions, circuses, advertising, festivals and other activities, if it poses to the animal suffering, pain or object of unnatural treatments.
p) Keep animals in enclosures and places where they can not be properly controlled and monitored.
q) Keeping animals in places where obvious cause nuisance to neighbors.
r) sold to laboratories or clinics without complying with the safeguards provided in the regulations.
s) To exercise using them begging or to impose the realization of behaviors and attitudes alien and inappropriate for their condition involving abusive treatment.
t) Manage, inoculate or applying pharmacological substances without prescription or direct supervision of a veterinarian. Providing wrong medication, apply it incorrectly, or not evaluate or unwanted side effects which may result in unjustifiable suffering to animals.

2. In particular, it is forbidden:

a) fighting or dog fighting or any other animal and other similar practices.
b) The pigeon shooting competitions, except those duly authorized by the Ministry responsible for sport under the control of the federation concerned.
c) Cockfighting, except those breeding selection for the improvement of the breed and export made in local nurseries and duly authorized by the one and only support of its partners.

Item 5. Welfare in the films.

1. The filming of scenes with animals for movies or television and photo shoots for advertising purposes involving cruelty, abuse, death or suffering of the same, shall in all cases without exception, a sham and must be authorized prior to their conduct, the competent organ of the Regional Administration, which is determined by regulation and may at any time inspect the above activities.

2. In all the film titles should be noted that this is a simulation.

Item 6. Transport of animals.
Subject to compliance with current regulations in the field, the transport of animals must meet the following requirements:

a) In case of travel, the animals must have adequate space in transportation. Likewise, the means of transport and containers must be appropriate to protect animals from weather and inclement weather, these packages must bear an indication of the presence of live animals. If you are aggressive, your move is carried out with sufficient safety measures.
b) During transportation and waiting, the animals must be watered and receive food at appropriate intervals according to their physiological needs.
c) The medium or vehicle carrying animals which have good sanitary conditions, according to the physiological and behavioral needs of the species that are transported must be properly disinfected bugged. These conditions determined by regulation.
d) Loading and unloading is performed by appropriate means in each case, so that animals do not endure discomfort or unjustified damage.

Item 7. Experimental animals.

1. The animals involved in the conduct of experiments shall be subject to the protection and care under current regulations.

2. Any activity experimental animals can cause pain, suffering, injury or death require prior authorization of the Ministry competent in the subject and veterinary supervision.

3. Experiments will be conducted under the direction of the relevant medical staff.

4. Animals, as a result of experimentation, not a normal life can be killed quickly and painlessly.

From pets

General rules

Item 8. Sanitary measures.

1. The Departments responsible for animal health or public health may take the following measures:

a) Determine the vaccination or treatment required for pets.
b) Detention or isolation of animals that they had been diagnosed with a communicable disease or curative treatment for their sacrifice, if necessary.

2. The rabies vaccination is mandatory for all dogs and cats. Regulations shall decide the frequency of it.

3. Practicing veterinarians must keep a file with the clinical records of each animal subject to mandatory vaccination or medical treatment, as provided by regulation. This tab will be available to the public administrations and contain at least the following information: species, breed, date of birth, identification number, name, if any, treatments that have been and timing of vaccinations and deworming . Also, the tab will reflect the information needed to identify the owner.

4. Dogs and cats, without prejudice to those animals specified in the regulations, must have a health card issued by a veterinarian.

Item 9. Sacrifice and sterilization.

1. The sacrifice of pets shall be under the control of a veterinary clinic, veterinary clinic or hospital or at home of the holder, painlessly and after anesthesia or lightheadedness, except in cases of force majeure.

2. Regulations shall define the methods of slaughter used.

3. The sterilization of pets shall be under the control of a veterinary clinic, veterinary clinic or hospital, so painless under general anesthesia.

Holding, movement and recreation

Article 10. Possession of animals.
Possession of pets in homes or private places is conditioned space, the sanitary conditions for accommodation and ethological needs of each species and race, and what has the law on possession of potentially dangerous animals.

Article 11. Specific conditions for the welfare of dogs.

1. The dwellings of the dogs have to stay most of the day outside be constructed of impervious materials to protect them from inclement weather and will be located so that they are not directly exposed to prolonged sunlight or the rain. The cabin is spacious enough for the animal to fit in it comfortably.

2. When the dogs must remain tied to a fixed point, the length of the tie will be the measure obtained by multiplying by three the length of the animal, between the nose and the beginning of the tail, but in no case be less than three meters.

3. The dogs will have time not less than one hour a day, during which will be free from bondage and outside the living quarters or rooms where they usually remain.

Article 12. Circulation in public spaces.

1. The animals must be able to access roads and public spaces when they are driven by their owners and are not a danger for pedestrians or other animals.

2. All dogs shall be secured by a strap and fitted with the appropriate identification.
The more than 20 kilograms must bear muzzle circular, heavy-duty belt and not extensible and led by seniors, under the conditions prescribed by regulation.
Guide dogs for people with visual dysfunctions are exempt in any position to be taken with muzzle.

3. The person conducting the animal is obliged to collect the stool of the same on the roads and public spaces, except in areas approved for that purpose by the municipality concerned.

Article 13. Access to public transport.

1. Owners of pets they could have access to public transport when there are specially equipped spaces for them and prove that the animal meets the sanitary conditions and meets the security measures specified in the regulations.

2. However, the municipal authority concerned may have time restrictions and regular access for pets to public transport, without prejudice to the provisions in current regulations on the use of guide dogs in Andalusia by people with visual dysfunctions.

3. Taxi drivers discretion may accept pets bring to the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this article and to apply the supplements that are authorized by regulation, subject to the carriage of guide dogs for people with visual impairment in the terms established in the regulations referred to above.

Article 14. Access to public facilities.

1. Companion animals may have limited access to hotels, restaurants, bars, taverns and other public facilities in those who consumed drinks and food when the owner of the establishment to determine the specific conditions of admission, prior administrative approval by the competent authority. In this case, must show a badge that tells you, visible from outside the establishment.

2. Premises for the manufacture, sale, storage, transport or handling of foods, public entertainment, sports facilities and other establishments or similar places prohibited the entry of animals.

3. You can not limit access to the locations referred to in the preceding paragraphs to supply dogs for visual dysfunctions of holders, under the terms established in current regulations on the use of guide dogs for people with visual dysfunctions.

Article 15. Recreation areas.
Public administrations should enable the public gardens and parks clearly marked spaces suitable for both leisure walk to the animals. Also take care that the above spaces are kept in perfect safety and sanitary.

Article 16. Collection and disposal.
The municipalities are responsible for the collection and disposal of dead animals in their respective municipalities and he may require, if any, economic benefits that may be applicable.

Identification and Records

Article 17. Identification.

1. Dogs and cats and other animals that are determined, must be individually identified by standard identification system, implanted by a veterinarian, within three months from birth.

2. The identification is reflected in all documents and files that recorded the animal and will be a prerequisite for the registration thereof.

Article 18. Municipal Register of Companion Animals.
Owners of dogs and cats and other animals specified in the regulations, shall be entered in the Register of Companion Animals Municipal Hall where the animal usually living in the maximum period of three months from the date of birth or one month of its acquisition or change of residence. They should also request the cancellation of the entries made within one month from the date of death, loss or transmission.

Article 19. Central Register of Companion Animals.

1. It creates the Central Register of Companion Animals, under the Ministry of the Interior, which shall consist of all the inscriptions of the municipal registries. The organization and operation of the Register shall be determined by regulation.

2. The municipalities must communicate regularly, and in any case at least twice a year, the ups and downs that occur in the Municipal Register, as well as changes in census data.

3. The Administration of the Junta de Andalucía and the municipalities within the scope of its powers, without prejudice to his responsibility for pet census, may agree with the official schools of veterinary agreements for the creation and maintenance of the censuses and .

Veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and temporary care of pets

Article 20. Definition.

1. Shall be considered veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and care of companion animals shelters, veterinary clinics and hospitals, homes, farms, training centers, outlets, shelters for stray animals and lost, institutions for the practice of riding, spas and any other similar functions meet.

2. It creates the Municipal Register of Veterinary and shopping centers for sale, training and care of pets, which shall be written in the center as defined above.

3. These centers must meet the following requirements:

a) Be enrolled in the Municipal Register of Veterinary and shopping centers for sale, training and care of pets.
b) Have the municipal license for the development of the activity.
c) Keep a log book available to the competent authorities, under the conditions specified in the regulations.
d) Have good sanitary conditions and adequate local physiological and behavioral needs of animals that harbor.
e) Be in a defined program of hygiene and prophylaxis of animals housed, endorsed by a veterinarian.
f) Provide sufficient and healthy food, water, and have trained personnel for care.
g) Provide adequate facilities to prevent infection in cases of illness among resident animals and the environment, or to save, where applicable, quarantine period.
h) Have sufficient and appropriate veterinary services for each facility.
i) Place in a conspicuous place at the main entrance a plaque with the registration number of centers for temporary care and maintenance of pets.
j) Other requirements of the sectoral rules that apply to you.

Article 21. Stores.

1. Establishments engaged in the sale of animals for the company this activity may simultaneously with the sale of foods or supplements for the holding, movement, training or grooming.

2. These facilities shall, without prejudice to other provisions that are applicable, the following measures:
a) The display windows where animals are not subject to the direct action of sunlight and shall maintain the temperature and conditions that best suit the nature of the animal, in any case must safeguard the security and rest of the animal.
b) In the habitats in which they are exposed to dogs and cats and other animals that is established by regulation, place a tab that will contain the date of birth, vaccinations and deworming to which they were subjected.

3. Mammals can not be sold as pets until forty days after the date of birth and must show all the characteristics of the animals healthy and well nourished.

4. The seller will give the buyer at the time of delivery of the animal, a document signed by him in specifying, under its responsibility, the following:
a) Species, breed, variety, age, sex and body signals important.
b) Supporting documentation, issued by a veterinarian, should give the animal vaccinated against diseases. In the case of dogs and cats, must have been dewormed and inoculated vaccines in the terms established by regulation.
c) Document entry in the studbook of the breed, if it had been agreed.

Article 22. Residences.

1. The pet homes, training centers and other facilities of the same class will have veterinary staff to monitor the physical condition of residents and the animals are treated. At the time of admission, the animal is placed in an isolation facility and adequate and shall be kept there until the center veterinarian rule on their health status, which should be reflected in the record book of the center.

2. It will be the veterinary staff of the center monitor the animals to adapt to the new situation, they receive adequate food and as there are no circumstances that can cause harm, the owner of the school proposing appropriate measures to adopt in each case.

3. If a sick animal, the center shall immediately inform the owner, who may give authorization for veterinary treatment or pick it up, except in cases of infectious diseases, in which the sanitary measures adopted.

4. The veterinary staff of the center take the necessary measures to prevent contagion among resident animals and the environment, and inform the veterinary services of the Administration of the Andalusian diseases that are notifiable.

5. The owners or keepers of pets must certify at the time of admission, the application of mandatory treatment established by the competent authorities.

Article 23. Beauty salons.
Centers for the aesthetics of pets, in addition to the guidelines set forth in this Act, must have:

a) Hot water.
b) drying devices the gadgets needed to prevent the production of burns in animals.
c) Work tables with safety systems that can prevent the strangulation of the animals in case they try to jump down.
d) Programs for disinfection and fumigation of the premises.

Article 24. Training centers.
Training centers in addition to fulfilling the conditions laid down in Articles 20 and 22 of this Law, based their work on the use of methods based on knowledge of the psychology of animal abuse not involving physical or psychological harm, to such purposes must have personnel certified to practice. The conditions for accreditation established by regulation.

Also, keep a log book which will include the identification data of the animals and their owners as well as the type of training for each animal.

Exhibitions and competitions

Article 25. Requirements.

1. The premises intended for exhibition or competition of different pet breeds must meet the following requirements:

a) Have a space for veterinary care physician who could be cared for those animals that require assistance.
b) Have a basic kit with regulatory pharmaceutical equipment and material necessary to stabilize and transport the animal to a veterinarian right center as required.

2. The organizers of competitions and exhibitions will be required to disinfection and decontamination of the premises or places where they are held.

3. It will be mandatory for all animals participating in contests or exhibitions presentation, prior to enrollment, relevant health card in accordance with current legislation.

4. In the exhibitions of dog breeds, will be excluded from participation those animals showing aggressive or dangerous.

Article 26. Promotion of indigenous breeds of Andalusia.
The Andalusian up an inventory of Andalusian breeds of pets and promote measures for their promotion, recognition by the international organizations related to them and contribute to maintaining biodiversity.

Abandoned and lost animals. Shelters and assigning them
Article 27. Abandoned and lost animals.

1. Animal is considered abandoned, for the purposes of this Act, who does not carry an accreditation that identifies or is accompanied by any person, without prejudice to existing legislation on potentially dangerous animals.

2. Lost animal shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act, a person who even carrying identification, circulate freely without any accompanying person. In this case, it shall notify the owner and it has a period of five days to recover, previously paying the expenses originated attention and maintenance. After this period expires without the owner would have proceeded to remove the animal shall be deemed abandoned. This does not relieve the owner of the responsibility that have been incurred by the abandonment of the animal.

3. Corresponds to the municipalities the collection and transportation of stray animals and lost and must take care of them for a minimum period of 10 days until they are transferred or, ultimately, killed.

4. The animal sacrifice may not be identified without knowledge of the owner. "Abandoned animal shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act, who does not carry an accreditation that identifies or is accompanied by anyone"

"The abandonment of animals is a very serious offense, which can be punished with up to 30,000 euros fine"

Article 28. Shelters lost and abandoned animals and collection and transport service.

1. Establishments refuge for abandoned and lost animals must meet the requirements of Article 20.3 of this Act

2. The service of collection and transport of animals will be performed by trained personnel so as not to cause harm, suffering or distress to the animals and must meet the proper conveyance sanitary conditions.

3. The number of places for abandoned animals that must have local councils regulations will be determined based on the number of inhabitants and the data collected in the Municipal Register of Companion Animals in the locality.

4. In any case, animals that are injured or symptoms of disease are necessary veterinary attentions paid.

5. The pet owners can deliver, without charge, at the service of placement of abandoned animals in their municipality to be appropriate to supply to third parties and, ultimately, to slaughter.

Article 29. Assignment of animals abandoned and lost.

1. Animal shelters abandoned and lost, after the legal deadline for recall may assign, once sterilized, after evaluation of the petitioners.

2. The animals should be dewormed properly delivered externally and internally, vaccinated and identified, in case they were not.

3. The transferee will be responsible for paying the costs of vaccination, identification and sterilization, if necessary.

4. The transfer of animals, in no event may the people who have been punished by a final decision by the commission of serious or very serious down-regulated in this Law

5. Stray animals shall not be disposed to be destined for experimentation.

Associations for the protection and animal rights

Article 30. Concept.
In accordance with this Act are associations for the protection and animal rights associations, non-profit, legally incorporated, whose main purpose is to defend and protect animals.
Article 31. Functions.

1. Protection associations and animal welfare may call upon the competent Ministry and the municipalities to conduct inspections in specific cases in which there are indications of irregularities in accordance with this Law

2. The associations for the protection and animal rights shall assist the law enforcement officers in the efforts that are related to compliance with this Act

3. The Administration of the Junta de Andalucía and the municipalities, within their competence, may enter into with associations of protection and defense of animals performing activities aimed at achieving these goals.

4. The competent authority shall establish agreements and grants to associations for the protection and animal rights groups who have obtained the title of collaborating entities, in relation to animal welfare activities, awareness campaigns and programs, pet adoption, including others, that they develop. "Partnerships for protection and defense of animals may urge the competent Ministry and the municipalities to conduct inspections in specific cases in which there are indications of irregularities in accordance with this Act."

Intervention, inspection, surveillance and administrative cooperation

Article 32. Monitoring and inspection.
Corresponds to the municipalities comply with the following functions:

a) Prepare and maintain the records referred to in this Act
b) To collect, donate or sacrifice the animals abandoned, lost or given by the owner.
c) is home to these animals during the time periods specified in this Act
d) Inspect veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and temporary care of pets covered by section 20.1 of this Act
e) Enable locations or systems for disposal of carcasses.
f) And all those others that may be conferred in this Act

Article 33. Temporary hold.

1. The Councils, through its law enforcement officers may temporarily hold on a precautionary basis, the pet if there are indications of abuse or torture, showed symptoms of physical exhaustion or malnutrition or inadequate facilities to meet you in the resolution of for disciplinary proceedings.

2. Similarly, the Council may order the temporary detention or isolation of those animals which have attacked people or animals causing injury, for observation, control and adoption of health measures.

Article 34. Administrative cooperation.
All public administrations in the territory of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, will cooperate in the development of protection measures and protection of animals and in the complaint before the competent bodies, any action contrary to the provisions of this Law

Offences and penalties

Article 35. Infractions.
Administrative violations shall be considered the acts or omissions established in this Law The development regulations will introduce specifications of those offenses under the terms provided in Article 129.3 of Law 30/1992 of November 26 (RCL 1992, 2512 , 2775 and RCL 1993, 246), Legal Regime of Public Administrations and Common Administrative Procedure

Article 36. Responsibility.

1. Be responsible for the offenses in this Act persons or entities that undertake the actions and omissions established as an infringement on the same, without prejudice to the responsibilities that may be appropriate in civil or criminal liability.

2. Where compliance with the obligations under this Act applicable to several persons jointly, jointly and severally liable for infringements, if any, are committed and the penalties imposed. They will also be vicariously liable for the penalties imposed on legal persons who have ceased their activities who occupy managerial positions at the time the offense was committed.

Article 37. Classification of offenses.
Violations are classified as very serious, serious and minor.

Article 38. Very serious offenses.
They are very serious infringements:

a) The mistreatment of animals that cause disability or death.
b) The abandonment of animals.
c) Practice mutilation for purely aesthetic and uselessly practiced by veterinarians except in case of need.

d) Placing food poisoning in spaces and public places, except those employed by companies authorized to pest control.
e) The use of animals at parties or events in which they may be subject to damage, suffering, unnatural treatment, maltreatment or in which they may offend the sensibilities of the viewer.
f) The supply of animals for food and medicinal products containing substances that may cause them unnecessary suffering or injury.
g) The organization and fights between animals.
h) The transfer under any title of premises, land or facilities for holding and fights between animals.
i) The use of animals by their owners or holders to participate in fights.
j) Filming scenes with animals involving cruelty or suffering abuse, when the damages are not simulated.
k) The use in experimental procedures to animals of species not included in the applicable regulations.
l) Conducting unauthorized testing procedures.
m) The use of animals for experimental procedures in non-official status.
n) used in experimental procedures or allocate to them without compliance with the warranties set forth in the applicable regulations.
o) Make the sacrifice of an animal without following the specifications of this Act and applicable regulations.
o) The use of live animals for training others.
p) The commission of an offense more serious nature within three years, when so declared by final decision.
Article 39. Serious offenses.

Serious infractions are:

a) The mistreatment of animals that cause pain or suffering or non-disabling injuries.
b) Failure to perform mandatory vaccinations and treatments under applicable law.
c) Do not keep animals in good sanitary conditions or the conditions set by applicable law.
d) No animals provide necessary veterinary care.
e) Impose a job that exceeds the capacity of an animal or animals forced to work sick, tired or are in some cases provided for in Article 4.1.n) of this Act
f) Sale or donation of animals for experimentation without appropriate authorization.
g) Filming scenes that simulate animal cruelty, abuse and suffering without administrative authorization.
h) The use of animals in exhibits that will cause suffering or pain.
i) The raising or marketing of animals without meeting the requirements.
j) Assistance to animal fights.
k) The sale or donation of animals under 16 or disabled without the permission of anyone with parental rights, guardianship or custody.
l) Failure to provide food for animals suited to their needs.
m) Offering animals as prizes in contests or reward or for advertising purposes.
n) out of vending facilities authorized fairs or markets.
ñ) To prevent personnel authorized by the competent authorities access to the premises of the establishments covered by this Act and not to provide information and documentation that are required in the exercise of control functions.
o) The failure by veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and temporary care of pets, the requirements and conditions set forth in this Act or its implementing rules.
p) The sale of mammals as pets less than forty days.
q) The sale of sick animals when it is satisfied.
r) The movement of animals without meeting the legal requirements.
s) The refusal or obstruction to provide data or provide the information required by the competent authorities or their agents, in order to fulfill functions under this Act, and the provision of inaccurate or false documentation.
t) The possession of unregistered animals or identified as provided in this Act
u) The commission of an offense more than mild in nature within three years, when so declared by final decision. "It's a serious infringement will not provide the necessary veterinary care animals."

Article 40. Minor offenses.
Minor infractions are:

a) The lack or possession of the file incomplete medical records of animals subject to compulsory treatment.
b) The failure to obtain authorizations, permits or licenses required in each case, to be in possession of the animal concerned.
c) The artificial manipulation of animals to make them attractive for fun or toy for sale.
d) Failure to notify the competent organ of the Administration of the Government of Andalusia in the use of experimental animals.
e) The disturbance by animals of the peace and quiet of neighbors.
f) The failure to collect the droppings immediately evacuated by the pet on public roads.
g) Any other action that contradicts the obligations or violates the prohibitions of this Act and not classified as serious or very serious.

Article 41. Sanctions.

1. The offenses set forth in the preceding article shall be punished with fines:

a) 75 to 500 euros for the minor.
b) 501 to 2,000 euros for the serious.
c) from 2001 to 30,000 euros for very serious.

In accordance with the provisions of Article 131.2 of Law 30/1992 of 26 November on the Legal Regime of Public Administrations and Common Administrative Procedure, imposing the fine may be increased by the amount of benefit obtained by performing of conduct constituting a violation.

2. In the resolution of disciplinary proceedings, in addition to the fines referred to in the first paragraph, the competent authorities may impose the following sanctions accessory:

a) Temporary closure of the premises, facilities or facilities for a maximum period of one year for serious violations and two years for very serious.
b) a temporary ban for the exercise of commercial activities covered by this Act, for a maximum period of one year for serious offenses and two for severe.
c) Confiscation of animals for serious or very serious.
d) Prohibition of the keeping of animals for a maximum period of two years to four for serious and very serious.

Article 42. Graduation of sanctions.
The graduation of the penalties provided by law shall comply with the following criteria:

a) The social or health significance and the harm caused by the infringement.
b) The profit motive and the amount of economic benefit in the commission of the offense.
c) The importance of damage to the animal.
d) The repetition in the commission of offenses.
e) Any other information which might affect the degree of blameworthiness of the offense, mitigating or aggravating sense. To this effect it will have a special significance in the presence of violence or mentally handicapped children.

Article 43. Provisional measures.

1. Infringement procedure, the administrative authority instructor may, after motivation, the following provisional measures in cases of alleged commission of serious or very serious under this Act:
a) The preventive withdrawal of animals and keeping them in the centers for the collection of animals.
b) The temporary suspension of permits.
c) The preventive closure of the premises, facilities or establishments.

2. Interim measures will be maintained while the reasons for persisting its adoption.

Article 44. Sanctioning procedures and powers.

1. To impose penalties for offenses under this Act, shall apply the procedure established by regulation.

2. Be competent to impose the penalties provided in this Act:

a) The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, for all cases of violations affecting farm animals and experimentation.
b) The Ministry of Interior, for the very serious sanctions and serious threat to pets.
c) The councils shall be competent to impose minor sanctions that affect pets.

3. In any case, outlined bodies shall inform the other relevant public authorities which have competence in the subject matter of this Act have been few sanctions imposed in the exercise of their functions.

Additional provision one. Information campaigns
The Government of Andalusia promulgate information campaigns on the content of this law among schoolchildren and the general public in order to increase the sensitivity and respect for animals.

Additional provision two. Advisory Bodies
The Government of Andalusia have appropriate measures for the creation of a specific body of advice, consultation and study to better compliance with the provisions in the
this Act

Additional provision three. Update sanctions
It empowers the Governing Council for the update every three years the amount of penalties under the Consumer Price Index.
First transitory provision. Veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and temporary care of pets
Veterinary centers and centers for sale, training and temporary care of pets must conform to the requirements of this Act within one year from the entry into force.

Second transitional provision. Owners and holders

Is established within six months from the entry into force of the law for owners and pet owners adapt their current situation to the provisions thereof. However, with regard to the provisions of Article 17.1, the period shall be one year from the pet born before the entry into force of the Law

Third transitional provision. Administrative Structures
Within six months after the entry into force of this Act, the Governing Council will adapt the administrative structure necessary to comply with the provisions of this Act

Repeal only. Repeal regulations

Are hereby repealed all provisions of equal or lower rank that contradict or conflict with the provisions of this Act

Final provision one. Policy development

Within one year after the entry into force of this Act, the Governing Council shall regulate the matters to be developed, accurate to the full realization of this Act

Final provision two. Entry into force

This Act shall take effect the day following its publication in the "Official Gazette of the Andalusian."

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Due to the complete denial by the authorities (politicians of all levels) of the massive existence of animal abuse in this country, our only possibility to make a difference, is to report ALL and each of the cases that we see.
Unfortunately, the vast majority of cases are reported exclusively on the internet/social media but not to the authorities like the Spanish animal welfare police SEPRONA or directly to court, and the result is obvious. As nobody reports, the official statistics don't include any of the severe cases all of us find nearly daily. Neither are all the dogs that shelters without subsidies and private people collect daily in the Spanish streets considered in official statistics. The result of this lack of complaints is today’s situation. the politicians rely on figures in statistics of complaints that do not reflect at all the sad reality in Spain. Therefore, I encourage you to report absolutely EVERYTHING you see, anything you see that is against the animal protection law. No matter if it is a hunting dog in poor condition, a dog abandoned on a roundabout in the middle of a village, a neighbor who has a husky locked in a balcony of 1m2 or some kids who train their Pitbull to attack or fight . It is necessary to put reports, as many as possible, so that the problem is recorded in the statistics. if we denounce everything that we see each day, we could almost paralyze the courts of all Spain and the politicians could not deny the severe problem anymore.
If there is a serious risk for you or your animals because it is a neighbour etc, go to associations of animal protection and ask them to make the corresponding complaint.
Don't report cases like a person having his dog in the garden because you think it will be better on the sofa. You also have to aware that if the animal in question is fed, has shelter and enough water and is reasonably clean there is not much chance that a complaint will proceed.
Important also is that private individuals denounce so that it is seen that normal citizens reject these abuse and neglect of animals. If they are really severe cases, you may always ask for support from a big shelter/association.
Do not worry about having expenses. You can go to a trial without lawyers. I have won several trials and I have always gone without a lawyer but with a well documented case and without exaggerations. If you are asked to bring a lawyer, and the case is realy important, we can help by fundraising for the expenses.
Here is how to act in a case of severe neglect against one or more animals:

  1. If the animal is not accessible because of a fence, cage or private property, you should not enter, take pictures from outside as good as you can.
  2. Make photos of the site and environment to be able to explain to SEPRONA where exactly they have to look.
  3. To compile all the possible data about the place (finca, flat, house, etc) incl a good description with map (google) of the site.
  4. get in touch with SEPRONA by phone (SEPRONA Civil Protection Nature Protection Section) and ask for information where the next SEPRONA office is in order to be able to go with the all the collected information and file the complaint. A PHONE CALL IS NOT A "DENUNCIA" AND ONLY WRITTEN AND SIGNED COMPLAINTS ARE INCLUDED IN THE STATISTICS AND OBLIGE THEM TO ACT.
  5. Keep calling SEPRONA to know the evolution of your complaint and also continue to monitor the animal in trouble in order to re-report if necessary. (IF THE ANIMAL IS WITHOUT FOOD AND WATER, FEED IT BUT DONT STEAL IT, BECAUSE YOU CONVERT THE MISTREATER IN VICTIM OF A THEFT AND HE FOR SURE WILL REPLACE THE STOLEN DOG!!!

If you find an animal injured by possible mistreatment:

  1. Take pictures of the place where the animal was found
  2. Take the animal to the next veterinarian to look at the microchip and for the necessary veterinary treatment and then ask for a healthreport of the state of the animal and also an invoice in case the the culprit is found , he will have to pay the expenses.
  3. Make photos of the animal at the veterinarian before and after the veterinary treatment.
  4. Take the veterinarian's report, the chip number, the photos and all the information you have to SEPRONA and proceed with the complaint

If you witness a mistreatment in front of you, whether ita hunter who shoots a dog or a person who mistreats any animal (his dogs etc), a man kicking his dog or a woman beating a puppy, you must call the police directly with the number 112 asking to be connected with SEPRONA or Guardia Civil.
It is not advisable to deal with either the local police or the Mossos (catalan police) because they are not interested at all in animals the vast majority of cases.
If you see an abandoned dog on a road with a lot of traffic (it works best if it's a motorway, highway, national highway etc) also call 112 but not as an animal lover asking for help for the poor puppy. You have to call as a frightened driver that you have almost had a serious accident because a dog crossed the road in front of you. Say out loud in hysterical tone that this dog is a safety hazard and that you have to react quickly insisting that if they do nothing they will be guilty if possible accidents happen due to the animal on the highway/street/motorway. I always do it like that, otherwise they wont come, and what a miracle, even the mossos move when I call as the hysterical driver
If so-and-so can denounce the neighbour for loud music, a famous his ex for alleged insults and slander, a muslim can report a teacher talking about pigs at school, WE CAN ALSO DENOUNCE THE INFRACTIONS AGAINST THE ANIMAL PROTECTION LAW !!!
In German there is a saying: WHERE NO NO ONE REPORTS, THERE WILL BE NO JUSTICE! And this is exactly what happens here, there are not enough complaints although we have more than enough cases.
Artcle by Pro-Galgo International

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lost dogIf you find a dog do not automatically phone or take it to a
dog centre or charity.

Most are usually full to capacity and the dog might have an owner?

“This is how you can personally help the animal”

1. Check if it belongs to any of your neighbours.
2. Take it to your local vet and they will check to see if the dog is
Micro chipped. If it is then they will contact the owner.

3. Go to your local Police Station, Dog pound or Vet and ask if
Anyone has lost the dog. Owners usually go there when they loose a dog.

4. Take a look in the lost pages of Animal Charities and the free papers.

5. If you can keep the dog for a few days, then put a poster in the
Veterinaries, Police Station, Shops and also send A photo and details to animal charities...

6. If you cannot keep the dog at all then contact your local Animal Centre/Charity
to see whether the dog can be taken in or if they could suggest as to where the dog
could be placed.

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AT LAST!!! Pet passport rules to be relaxed?

The UK will harmonise its pet movement rules with the rest of the European Union from 1 January 2012, bringing the UK’s Pet Travel Scheme into line with the most recent science..


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Leishmaniasis Fact Sheet - Although not currently common in the UK, Leishmaniasis is a prevalent disease in podenco with Leishmaniamuch of Europe and warmer areas of the world. Although it may not be cured, veterinary treatment can lead to remission and effective long-term control of the disease with no impairment in quality of life. Leishmaniasisdoes not need to be a death sentence for dogs and it is important to find a vet who has up-to-date knowledge of the disease and its treatment. Leishmaniasis is a serious disease and mismanagement can lead to a decline in health of the animal, but provided owners are aware of the symptoms and treatment protocols, dogs should be able to lead happy, normal lives. We hope that with more education more people will consider adopting dogs with leishmaniasis and give them a chance for a normal happy life.

What is Leishmaniasis? Leishmaniasis is an infection of leishmania protozoa (unicellular organism) that can affect humans and mammals. The disease is found all over the world except in Australia and is transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sandflies only. The infection produces a wide range of symptoms including hair loss around the eyes and muzzle, inappetence, weight loss, nose bleeds and eye problems, weeping lesions, lethargy, anaemia, dermatitis and overgrown claws. Severe infections can also lead to internal problems and kidney failure. If left untreated, severe infections can be fatal. There are several types of Leishmaniasis, each caused by a different species of sandfly. The visceral form of leishmaniasis affects internal organs and cutaneous leishmaniasis causes skin lesions and hair loss. Dogs usually suffer from both visceral and cutaneous symptoms but cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more common infection in humans. How do dogs catch leishmaniasis? Dogs become infected through bites from a blood-sucking insect called a sand fly (Phlebotomine). Female sand flies suck blood for protein to make their eggs. If a fly bites an infected dog, the Leishmania parasite grows in the stomach of the fly and, later, when the fly bites again, infective forms of theparasite are injected into the skin of the animal which may then develop leishmaniasis. There are very rare reports of a healthy dog becoming infected by being in close contact with a dog with leishmaniasis, or puppies of an infected bitch being born with the infection, however the method of infection has never been proven. Where the disease is managed, any risks of spreading the disease are significantly lower and reports of transmission are from severely infected, untreated dogs.

A vector is usually necessary for any transmission of the disease so in countries where there are no sandflies, there is little risk of any spread of the disease. The vector involved in the transmission of Leishmaniasis is not found in the UK. Can Leishmaniasis be transmitted to humans? Although some forms of the disease can be carried by humans, direct dog-to-human transmission has never been reported, even among veterinarians who have handled hundreds of dogs with leishmaniasis. Where the disease is managed at low levels there is a negligible risk of any kind of transmission and the canine strain of the disease is different to the strain that affects humans in other parts of the world. Human patients respond much better to treatment than dogs, and infections are not life-threatening, responding well to the same drugs used to treat dogs, provided they are treated promptly. Where are dogs at risk? Dogs are at risk from the disease anywhere where there are sandflies present. They are most abundant in gardens, around houses in the countryside, parklands and woodland.

The period of activity of all sand fly vectors is from sunset to sunrise.The dangerous times of year are different in different countries. Around the Mediterranean, leishmaniasis is transmitted from May to September, or later if there is an Indian summer, to October. It is endemic in most of Greece, much of Italy, the Balkans, Malta, southern France, many parts of Portugal and Spain (particularly in the south east and the Balearic islands) and in the humid parts of North Africa. Among the safe places are the Scandinavian countries, the UK including the Channel Islands, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany, northern France, and the mountains of Switzerland. There have also been recent reports of cases in warmer parts of the USA. How can Leishmaniasis be prevented? Currently there is no vaccine or prophylactic treatment available and the only available method of protection is a Deltamethrin-impregnated collars. (Scalibor®ProtectorBand, Intervet International) These collars effective in killing sand flies that feed on dogs and also have a strong anti-feeding effect on the flies. The collars slowly release insecticide onto the skin and retains efficacy for many months. Studies have shown that Scalibor collars are effective in 90% of cases.

How is Leishmaniasis diagnosed? The common clinical signs of canine leishmaniasis may be enough to suggest leishmaniasis to an experienced veterinarian, especially in an endemic area yet it is important to confirm clinical diagnosis with laboratory test. Diagnosis can be made by microscopic examination of a bone marrow or lymph gland sample, serological detection in blood samples, or DNA tests in circulating blood cells or skin. Recent information from Leishmania conferences indicates that for lower level dogs, an annual general health profile should be taken. From these results a veterinarian will be able to detect whether the Leishmaniasis is active. Globulinwill be raised and Albumin will be abnormally low on Biochemistry results and Eosinophils may be flagged on Haematology results. If all results are normal then there is no reason to have a titre test done. If there are abnormalities with the results then a titre test can be taken to determine whether Leishmaniasis is the cause. Titre tests are not necessarily useful in isolation and are usually taken before and after treatment in order to assess the effectiveness of treatment protocols. In addition to the titre test, Electrophoresis tests can be requested from an external laboratory and will help with identifying whether the dog requires treatment. This test accurately maps the protein levels of the blood and will detect any changes caused by Leishmaniasis. For dogs with high levels of infection, electrophoresis, titre and a general health profile should be taken in order to adequately map the status of the disease.

What are the clinical signs of Leishmaniasis? Leishmaniasis will progress slowly in the dog’s body and it can take up to seven years from infection to the point when the dog owner starts to notice Leishmaniasis symptoms in the dog. The symptoms are often vague and the vet might treat the dog for other more common diseases before realising that the cause of the problems is Leishmaniasis. There are also quite a lot of dogs that seem to be naturally resistant to the parasite – they are infected but they never develop any symptoms of Leishmaniasis. Common symptoms of Leishmaniasis in dogs are weakness, listlessness, intolerance to exercise, and loss of appetite (often leading to weight loss). In some dogs, these symptoms are accompanied with hepatosplenomegaly(enlargement of the liver and spleen), local or generalized lymphadenopathy(swollen lymph nodes), and/or a fever. Up to 90% of dogs suffering from symptomatic Leishmaniasis have both visceral and cutaneous lesions. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis lesions are normally dry and the dog will lose its hair. The head is usually the first place for lesions to show, especially on the muzzle and pinna. Lesions originating on the footpads are also quite common. Eventually, the Leishmaniasis lesions can spread to the rest of the dog’s body. Articular involvement is not uncommon when it comes to Leishmaniasis in dogs, and can lead to swollen joints and a stiff gait. Other symptoms of Leishmaniasis in dogs are chronic diarrhoea, deformed and brittle nails, and ocular lesions. If any of these symptoms present then owners should take the dog to see a vet in case they need to be put back on medication or on a higher dose of medication. Although these clinical signs seem severe, the initial stages are easy to spot and there is a good window of opportunity to get treatment and get the disease back to a managed level. What is the treatment for leishmaniasis? Currently there is no cure for leishmaniasis but the disease can be very successfully managed with simple drug therapy and the dogs can go on to lead normal lives.

The earlier the infection is treated, the better the chance of controlling the disease. Once treated, the clinical signs can go in remission but the dog will probably still be infected at a very low level for life, and may relapse. Dogs should be afforded a good diet, regular worming and flea treatments in order to reduce challenges on body systems. The healthier the dog, the lower the chances of a relapse occurring. Initial treatment is with megulamine antimoniate (Glucantime®) injected either into a vein or under the skin every day for 3-4 weeks. This drug is not always well tolerated by leishmanial dogs and they should be under veterinary supervision throughout treatment. Glucantime is often combined with a drug called allopurinol, which is given daily by mouth for many months, sometimes for life in order to keep the disease in remission. After initial stabilisation of the disease, many dogs may never need further treatment, whilst others may need occasional periods of allopurinol treatment in the form of a twice-daily oral tablet/tablets. Allopurinol is not toxic and can be given to thedog by the owner. The dose range for allopurinol tablets is 10-30mg per kg of bodyweight. As low a dose as possible is used with the highest dose reserved for active cases and dogs with high levels of the parasite. Initially doses may be at the higher range with gradual reductions to the lowest effective dose. It is important to note that the lowest effective dose of allopurinol is 10mg per kilogram of bodyweight twice a day. Medications should be given 12 hours apart in order that there is a regular level of the medication in the dog’s system at all times.

Treatment is relatively inexpensive and provided owners are aware of the early signs of a relapse and regular blood tests are carried out, the dog may never show severe symptoms. Regular blood tests can assess the level of leishmania infection and also indicate the health of the animal, therefore helping to reveal the need for allopurinol tablets before clinical signs appear. Your vet will need to use laboratory that tests leishmaniasis levels, such as the University of Bristol and dogs need to be off medication for two months before leishmaniasis levels can be assessed. Some dogs have such low levels that they do not ever need treatment whilst other dogs may need to stay on a low level allopurinol dose for life. In either case it should be possible for the dog to have a normal quality of life.  

Article from SOS Animals UK

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pine processing caterpilarsThe pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) will, during late winter/early spring, be coming out of pine trees and forming conspicuous snakelike lines.

They will not be far from a pine tree, but that does not mean that you will only see them in large pine woods, they are just as likely to be found in villages and road side plantings in fact wherever pine trees are present. One of the first signs to be aware of is their white silken nests attached to a branch tip, these become most obvious around December to March. (These caterpillars are known as ‘procesionaria del pino’ in Spanish).

As a moth it has no means of causing us harm, it is only during its development as a caterpillar that you need to be cautious of this small creature. The moths seek out pine trees in the warm summer nights, lay clusters of eggs on the pine needles and so the process begins. There are 5 instars or growth stages to these caterpillars, where they gorge on pine needles, shed their skins and double in size. This growth occurs during the winter when they disperse through the tree at night to feed, thereby avoiding predation, and collect in communal nests by day to increase their warmth and ability to digest. Note that the white candyfloss like nests are cleverly positioned for maximum sunshine. By February these nests can be looking a bit dishevelled, this is because a nest may hold around 300 caterpillars and with no single entrance hole they push their way through the layers, the green bits collecting at the base and falling to the ground beneath are excrement.

The time for them to leave the nest in preparation for the next part of their lifecycle varies with temperature, spanning from January in warmer areas to April in the cool of the mountains, with a few even falling from the trees during windy weather. It is as they leave the trees that most people and pets come into contact with the caterpillars, sometimes with very painful consequences. They are the only caterpillar here to form a long chain, touching nose to tail. This snake-like procession is a real giveaway as to their identity. The line may stretch for a metre or two but if disturbed there could be several smaller groups and scattered individuals. (Each being around 3 to 4cm long). They have gone through a long feeding phase and will now search for a suitable place to burrow underground where they will undergo major changes, from caterpillar through to a moth - without nourishment.

The danger that they pose to humans and animals is a very simple defence mechanism designed to stop them from becoming a meal themselves. Each caterpillar is covered with tiny barbed hairs, it is these which do us harm. They are constantly being dropped throughout its time as a caterpillar. They are too tiny to see, but cover the branches of the tree where the creatures have been feasting and of course the nests are loaded with them. They are even in the air around a heavily infested tree.

Direct contact with the Processionary Caterpillar colonies as they disperse can easily be avoided once you are aware of what to look out for. Inquisitive children, adults and pets must not get too close - it is even said that treading on them has lead to a reaction, as the hairs caught on your shoe can come into contact with your skin at a latter hour.

When humans come into contact with these hairs, they can cause reactions ranging from mild inflammation and irritation to severe anaphylactic shock. If the hairs contact your skin a rash soon forms which can be incredibly itchy, painful and lasts for as much as three weeks.
The worst problems occur if you make contact with the caterpillar directly and ingest the hairs.
If you get any reaction from contact with these insects medical advice should be sought.

Veterinary services have many emergency calls at the time when the caterpillars are migrating to the ground as dogs can get too close to the intriguing procession and may pick up the hairs onto their paws, these irritate and so they lick them. Once the hairs are on the lips/tongue it will induce itching, swelling and possibly vomiting. Look out for the symptoms of : small white spots in the mouth and on the tongue, excessive drooling and chomping.  In some cases partial amputation of the tongue is the only course of action.

These pests which eat only pine needles, are found in warmer parts of Southern Europe, North Africa and across to the Near East. Milder winters are allowing these insects to expand into new areas, both into more northern latitudes and higher elevations. Their favored food tree is Black pine (Pinus nigra) followed by Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis), Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea).

If you are aware of the presence of processionary caterpillars in your area then contact your local town hall and ask them what their policy is for control and eradication. In large forests this is a complicated problem to solve but in individual and small plantations on urbanisations or in towns there should be an eradication system in place.

Under no circumstances should you try to handle the caterpillars or their nests.


POISON TOAD - If you notice your dog foaming at the mouth after messing with a toad, immediately rinse it out with water. If the dog eats the toad, you should probably get it to a vet or animal hospital right away.

The Giant toad is another toad that is a favorite among pet lovers. It is indeed giant; it can grown up to eight inches long and is very heavy. This toad is greenish-brown and covered with bumps. It has glands that can secrete a very toxic poison. The Giant toad is responsible for the death of many dogs. This toad will come into yards and eat the dogs food. If the dog would grab the toad it would be immediately poisoned.

Pet owners might notice signs of profuse, frothy salivation with vigorous head shaking, pawing at the mouth and continuous efforts to vomit, incoordination and staggering.

If you know of or strongly suspect toad poisoning, immediately rinse out your pet's mouth with water before going to your veterinarian or an emergency clinic for treatment. Most toad poisonings occur in the evening or the night.

Unfortunately, there are no antidotes for toad venom intoxication, but many of these victims may be saved with symptomatic treatment, which reduces the absorption of toxin and controls the clinical signs of illness. Depending upon circumstances, your veterinarian may use a variety of drugs to control heart abnormalities, breathing problems and excitation of the central nervous system.

The key to survival is rapid recognition of signs and prompt veterinary medical care.


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There are a total of 13 snakes present in Spain of which five are venomous. These are:

  1. Seoane’s viper (Vipera seoanei – víbora de Seoane)
  2. Asp viper (Vipera aspis – víbora áspid)
  3. Snub-nosed or Lataste’s viper (Viborade lataste – vibora hocicuda)
  4. False smooth snake (Macroprotodon cucullatus – culebra de cogulla)
  5. Montpellier Snake (Malpolon monspessulanus – culebra bastarda or de Montpellier)

Seoane’s viper lives in Galicia, León, the Cantabrian coastal strip (Cornisa Cantábrica) and the Basque Country. Confusingly some authors class Seoane’s viper as a subspecies of the common viper or adder (Vipera berus – víbora europea) and, more confusingly still, some experts believe both exist in northern Spain. However, since 1976, they are considered to separate species, with the latter absent from Spain.

lataste viperBy far the commonest of the vipers, Lataste’s viper, is present throughout the rest of the Peninsula, though nowhere is it common. It is grey, short (around 50cm) and is distinguished by its triangular head and the zigzag pattern on its back. It lives in dry, rocky areas, away from humans and is timid, but don’t go sticking your hands in holes and crevices and be careful when collecting firewood as viper bites can be fatal.

The other two snakes are not so dangerous, but watch out for the 2-metre long Montpellier snake. It is blue with a white underbelly -don’t go picking one up to check- and has prominent ridges over the eyes. However, the position of its venom fangs means that you would be unlucky to have poison injected into you, and if you are, its venom is much weaker then the vipers.

If you are bitten by a snake, remain calm and seek medical attention immediately. Bites only occur in the spring and summer as snakes hibernate. Of the estimated 50 snakebite deaths a year in Europe, only 3-6 occur in Spain, so don’t worry too much. 1-2 are reckoned to occur in Catalonia. More people die from bee and wasp stings. The Canaries are snake-free, and only the milder False smooth snake is found in the Balearics, probably introduced there by the Romans.

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Human Medications
Human medications are once again at the top of the list of pet toxins for 2010. The most common culprits include over-the-counter medications (ibuprofen, acetaminophen), antidepressants and ADHD medications. 

About 20% of the calls to the APCC are about insecticides. Insecticides are commonly used on our pets for flea control and around our houses to control crawling and flying bugs. The most serious poisonings occurred when products not labeled for use in cats were applied to them. Always follow label directions.

Baits used to kill mice and rats are mostly grain based. Not only does this attract rodents, but it attracts dogs and cats. There are several different types of rodenticides that can cause seizures, internal bleeding or kidney failure. Always make sure these items are placed in areas that pets cannot access.

People Food
Xylitol, grapes, raisins, onions and garlic are commonly ingested by our pets. Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in dogs, while onions and garlic can cause anemia if enough is ingested. Xylitol, a sugar alcohol used to sweeten sugar free gums and mints, can cause low blood sugar and liver failure in dogs. 

Veterinary Medications
Many medications made for our pets are flavored for ease of giving. Unfortunately, that means that animals may ingest the entire bottle of medication if they find it tasty. Common chewable medications include arthritis and incontinence medications. Contact your veterinarian if your pet ingests more than his proper dose of medication.

Chocolate contains methylxanthines, which act as stimulants to our pets. The darker the chocolate, the more methylxanthines it contains. Methylxanthines can cause agitation, vomiting, diarrhea, high heart rate, muscle tremors, seizures and death.

Household Toxins
Cleaning supplies, such as bleach, acids, alkalis and other detergents, can cause corrosive injury to the mouth and stomach. Other household items such as batteries and liquid potpourri can cause similar problems. Always keep these toxins behind securely locked doors.

Both house plants and outdoor plants can be ingested by our pets. Lilies can cause life-threatening kidney failure in cats, while sago palms can cause liver failure in dogs and cats. Keep house plants and bouquets away from your pets.

Many herbicides have a salty taste, and our pets will commonly ingest them. Always follow label directions and keep pets off treated areas until they are dry.

Outdoor Toxins
Antifreeze, fertilizers and ice melts are all substances that animals can find outdoors. Keep these items in securely locked sheds or on high shelves where pets cannot get to them.

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Every year 50,000 dogs are abandoned in Spain. Many of those dogs will have been welcomed into the home as cute Christmas gifts only to be dumped when the holiday season arrives.

However whilst people abandon their pets in large numbers, there seems to have been a change in the past 10 years in just how they dispose of their unwanted pooches.

According to Alberto Díez, spokesman for the Asociación Nacional para la Defensa de los Animales (ANDA), fewer dogs are now abandoned on the streets. Sr Díez says owners prefer to rid themselves of their dogs 'with a clean conscience' and take them to animal rescue societies. Nonetheless Sr Díez stresses that 'the animals suffer'.

Sr Díez points out that the highest figures for abandoning dogs occur in urban areas.
The major crisis is during the summer months when families go on holiday and dump their pets rather than taking them with them or placing them in boarding kennels.
Another peak period is at the end of March when the hunting season ends and many hunters abandon their dogs in rural areas.

ANDA is keen to promote a programme of sterilisation in Spain. Sr Díez pointed out that the majority of abandoned dogs are batches of puppies, which their owners no longer want to keep. He added: "In the rest of Europe they have now solved this problem by massive sterilisation which is much cheaper than here where prices are astronomical".

One of the oldest animal rescue societies in Spain can be found in Cádiz.
The protection society for plants and animals was founded in 1872. It started protecting plants but as the years passed by it also took abandoned animals into its care.

The society now has a 5,000 square metre kennel complex with 20 units equipped with kennels and feeding areas. 

RAISINS & GRAPES – A danger to your pet.
Originally thought to be an urban legend, it is now known that raisins and grapes are indeed toxic to dogs. The type of grape and the type of dog doesn't seem to matter, and the toxic amount may be a small serving to several ounces.

Some dogs naturally love eating raisins and grapes and will seek them out; from the pantry or growing in a vineyard. Pet owners have used raisins as a training treat, and some have used them as a "healthy" snack alternative for their dogs.

A computerized animal toxicity database helped veterinarians see a trend in 1989, noticing that in some cases of acute renal failure (sudden kidney failure) dogs shared a common history: the consumption of raisins or grapes just prior to the kidney failure.
The type of grape or raisin doesn't seem to matter, and the amount consumed may be a single serving of raisins or a pound or more of grapes. (Raisins are much more concentrated.) Researchers are exploring the possibilities: a mycotoxin (fungal toxin), pesticide, herbicide or heavy metals, but thus far the actual toxin is unknown at this time.

Vomiting and jittery (hyperactive) behavior are seen immediately to within the first 24 hours after ingestion. Diarrhea may also be seen, and the vomitus and feces may contain partially digested grapes or raisins. After 24 hours, the dog may be come anorexic, lethargic and depressed. Additionally the abdomen may be painful, the dog may stop drinking and urinating. Ultimately, the kidneys fail, and without aggressive treatment, many dogs will die.

If the raisin or grape ingestion was 2 hours or less, the veterinarian will want to induce vomiting to rid the body of the toxin and then administer activated charcoal to absorb any remaining toxin. Aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is required to keep the kidneys in good health. Additional kidney medications may be indicated, depending on the patient.

If you suspect that your pet has consumed any amount of grapes or raisins, please contact your veterinarian immediately.